He was born Joseph Rudyard Kipling on December 30 th , 1865 in Bombay, India to John Lockwood Kipling, a pottery designer and sculptor, and Alice Kipling. Kipling returned to India in 1882 and worked for seven years as a journalist. The sights and sounds, even the language, which he'd believed he'd forgotten, rushed back to him upon his arrival. The Ballad of East and West. There was a … The two appeared to be just friends, but during the Christmas holiday in 1891, Kipling, who had traveled back to India to see his family, received an urgent cable from Carrie. In 1907, Rudyard Kipling received the Nobel Prize in literature “in consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration which characterize the creations of this world-famous author". His parents, although not officially important, belonged to the highest Anglo-Indian society, and Rudyard thus had opportunities for exploring the whole range of that life. Health issues eventually caught up to both Kipling and Carrie, the result of age and grief. Readers repelled by a strain of brutality—even of cruelty—in his writings should remember the sensitive and shortsighted boy who was brought to terms with the ethos of this deplorable establishment through the demands of self-preservation. The job offered Kipling a good excuse to discover his surroundings. His mother was Alice Macdonald, two of whose sisters married the highly successful 19th-century painters Sir Edward Burne-Jones and Sir Edward Poynter, while a third married Alfred Baldwin and became the mother of Stanley Baldwin, later prime minister. Kipling’s ideas were not in accord with much that was liberal in the thought of the age, and, as he became older, he was an increasingly isolated figure. He died in 1936. Kipling was a man of two worlds, somebody who was accepted by both his British counterparts and the native population. The biography contains the life history of popular writer, Rudyard Kipling. © 2021 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. Kipling's work entered the realm of mass popular entertainment in the Disney film adaptation of The Jungle Book, a 1967 animated musical loosely based on the original tale. The same year he purchased Bateman's, Kipling also published his Just So Stories, which were greeted with wide acclaim. "Behold us," he wrote in a November 1902 letter, "lawful owners of a grey stone, lichened house—A.D. He particularly adored the work of Daniel Defoe, Ralph Waldo Emerson and Wilkie Collins. Between 1885 and 1888, Rudyard Kipling went to Simla each year for his annual leave and the town, which became a center of power in India for six months of the year, features quite strongly in his stories. Kipling's experiences during this time formed the backbone for a series of stories he began to write and publish. December 30, 1865 - January 18, 1936. Around this time, Kipling's star power started to grow. In 1892 Kipling married Caroline Balestier, the sister of Wolcott Balestier, an American publisher and writer with whom he had collaborated in The Naulahka (1892), a facile and unsuccessful romance. Kipling did recover, but his beloved Josephine did not. Rudyard Kipling is remembered for his stories and poems of British soldiers in India and for his tales for children. ACHIEVEMENTS Rudyard Kiplingworked very hard for the Newspaper for six years from 1883. Finally, Kipling made use of his connections and managed to get John enlisted with the Irish Guard as a second lieutenant. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. His novel The Light That Failed (1890) is the story of a painter going blind and spurned by the woman he loves. Kipling’s pamphlets were very popular among the … The life of the youngest-ever winner of the Nobel Prize for literature, Rudyard Kipling, was filled with tragedy. From 1883 to 1889, Kipling worked in British India for local newspapers such as the Civil and Military Gazette in Lahore and The Pioneer in Allahabad. Eliot.) In addition to Plain Tales From the Hills, Kipling published a second collection of short stories, Wee Willie Winkie (1888), and American Notes (1891), which chronicled his early impressions of America. J.R.R. He is most famous for his children's stories, including The Jungle Book and the Just So Stories. In London, he met Wolcott Balestier, an American agent and publisher who quickly became one of Kipling's great friends and supporters. "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); Subscribe to the Biography newsletter to receive stories about the people who shaped our world and the stories that shaped their lives. Rudyard Kipling was a British author in the late 19th and early 20th century. His poems included “Mandalay,” “Gunga Din,” and “If—.” His children’s stories included The Jungle Book (1894) and Just So Stories (1902). Rudyard Kipling's early stories and poems about life in colonial India made him a great favorite with English readers. Kipling lived there from 1902 until his death in 1936. 1887- Kipling joined the newspaper The Pioneer, Allahabad. A visitor to his home saw his condition and immediately contacted his mother, who rushed back to England and rescued her son from the Holloways. Rudyard Kipling was born on 30 December 1865 in Bombay, in the Bombay Presidency of British India, to Alice Kipling (née MacDonald) and John Lockwood Kipling. A distraught and drained Kipling returned to England to once again mourn the loss of a child. Adopting the role of the head of the household, she held reporters at bay when they came calling and issued directions to both staff and children. 1634 over the door—beamed, paneled, with old oak staircase and all untouched and unfaked.". Today he is best known for his Jungle Books and Kim, a … (His rehabilitation was attempted, however, by T.S. Kim (1901), about an Irish orphan in India, is a classic. While Kipling continued to write for the next two decades, he never again returned to the bright, cheery children's tales he had once so delighted in crafting. He then went on to the United Services College at Westward Ho, north Devon, a new, inexpensive, and inferior boarding school. In 1986, he became the first African to receive the Nobel Prize for Literature. A decade later, Kipling married Caroline Balestier and settled in Brattleboro, Vermont, where he wrote The Jungle Book (1894), among a host of other works that made him hugely successful. Kipling’s poems and stories were extraordinarily popular in the late 19th and early 20th century, but after World War I his reputation as a serious writer suffered through his being widely viewed as a jingoistic imperialist. All the while he had remained keenly observant of the thronging spectacle of native India, which had engaged his interest and affection from earliest childhood. He is best known for authoring 'The Hobbit' and 'The Lord of the Rings' trilogy. Rudyard Kipling: biography The British writer and poet Rudyard Kipling became popular due to his short stories and poems; his quotes and aphorisms continue to be relevant today. The writer’s life also generates interest in people: it was exciting and complicated. Rudyard Kipling Biography, Stories, Books, Poems, Nobel Prize Kipling rushed back to England, and within eight days of his return, the two married at a small ceremony attended by American writer Henry James. Even though he spent his early childhood in India he went to school in England. If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! That year the young couple moved to the United States and settled on Mrs. Kipling’s property in Vermont, but their manners and attitudes were considered objectionable by their neighbours. In November 1887, Kipling became assistant editor at the … The achievements of Rudyard Kipling lie in his literary contributions, which remain popular and oft-cited more than 70 years after his death. During the Japanese leg of the journey, Kipling learned that his bank, the New Oriental Banking Corporation, had failed. He moved to England in 1889 and enjoyed a meteoric rise to literary fame, especially after the appearance of Barrack-Room Ballads (1892). Kipling revered the new home, with its lush gardens and classic details. In 1926 he received the Gold Medal of the Royal Society of Literature, which only Scott, Meredith, and Hardy had been awarded before him. Rudyard Kipling Timeline: 1865- Joseph Rudyard Kipling was born on 30 December 1865. George Orwell was an English novelist, essayist and critic most famous for his novels 'Animal Farm' (1945) and 'Nineteen Eighty-Four' (1949). With few friends, he devoted himself to reading. Rudyard Kipling was an English author famous for an array of works like 'Just So Stories,' 'If' and 'The Jungle Book.' They were eventually assembled into a collection of 40 short stories called Plain Tales From the Hills, which gained wide popularity in England. Kipling's books during his years at Bateman's included Puck of Pook's Hill (1906), Actions and Reactions (1909), Debts and Credits (1926), Thy Servant a Dog (1930) and Limits and Renewals (1932). It was a powerful time in the young writer's life. Joseph Rudyard Kipling was born on December 30, 1865, in Bombay. British novelist William Golding wrote the critically acclaimed classic 'Lord of the Flies,' and was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1983. In 1907 he received the Nobel Prize for Literature, the first Englishman to be so honoured. He traveled to America and wrote 'American Notes' about his experiences. He vowed never to return to America. Kipling received the 1907 Nobel Prize for Literature. During the First World War, the British Government asked Kipling to write propaganda, which Kipling immediately accepted. The gentle Kipling was embarrassed by the attention and regretful of how his celebrity had worked against him. The news devastated the couple. Looks like something went wrong. Kipling was the recipient of the 1907 Nobel Prize in Literature. His only break from the Holloways came in December, when Kipling, who told nobody of his problems at school or with his foster parents, traveled to London to stay with relatives for the month. As a writer, too, Kipling flourished. On 22 October 1924, Elsie Kipling married George Bambridge and in 1938 they bought Wimpole Hall, Cambridgeshire's largest stately home. He wrote tales and poems of British soldiers in India and stories for children. Ever after Kipling remained very aware that Americans were “foreigners,” and he extended to them, as to the French, no more than a semi-exemption from his proposition that only “lesser breeds” are born beyond the English Channel. In October 1915, the Kiplings received word that John had gone missing in France. But nothing ever came of the search, and John's body was never recovered. Omissions? Bateman's, the house purchased by Rudyard Kipling in 1902, Burwash, East Sussex, England. This was at the height of the "British Raj", so he was brought up by Indian nurses ("ayahs"), who taught him something of the beliefs and tongues of India. Thereafter, he wrote several books including the famous 'The Jungle Book'. The book's name had, in fact, come from Josephine, who told her father he had to repeat each tale as he always had, or "just so," as Josephine often said. When he was five he was sent with his sister to board with a captain and his wife in Portsmouth while his parents stayed in India. Rudyard Kipling was an English author famous for an array of works like 'Just So Stories,' 'If' and 'The Jungle Book.' In the winter of 1899, Carrie, who was homesick, decided that the family needed to travel back to New York to see her mother. Rudyard Kipling is an English writer born in 1865 in Bombay. The Kiplings were broke. However, at the age of six, Kipling's life was torn apart when his mother, wanting her son to receive a formal British education, sent him to Southsea, England, where he attended school and lived with a foster family named the Holloways. Yet even as Kipling grew more rigid in his viewpoints as he got older, aspects of his earlier work would still be celebrated. Elsie Bambridge (née Kipling; 2 February 1896 – 24 May 1976) was the second daughter of British writer Rudyard Kipling.She was the only one of the Kipling's three children to survive beyond early adulthood. Considered one of the great English writers, Joseph Rudyard Kipling was born on December 30, 1865, in Bombay (now called Mumbai), India. Rudyard Kipling - Poets, Life Achievements and Personal Life. He was dedicated as ever to his writing, something Carrie helped ensure. Reader in English Literature, University of Oxford, 1969–73. Captains Courageous (1897), in spite of its sense of adventure, is burdened by excessive descriptive writing. In South Africa, where he spent much time, he was given a house by Cecil Rhodes, the diamond magnate and South African statesman. Rudyard led an exciting life filled with journeys and interesting situations. Rudyard Kipling was an English writer best known for the children's book The Jungle Book . The book itself was in part a tribute to his late daughter, for whom Kipling had originally crafted the stories as he put her to bed. When he died, two days before King George V, he must have seemed to many a far less representative Englishman than his sovereign. But as was often the case in Kipling's life, good fortune was accompanied by hard luck. While working in India, Rudyard Kipling published a collection of verse and several volumes of short stories, including The Phantom Rickshaw, all of which were well received by the public. He received the 1907 Nobel Prize in Literature. Rudyard Kipling is remembered for his stories and poems of British soldiers in India and for his tales for children. Tolkien is an internationally renowned fantasy writer. Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images Rudyard Kipling is one of the best-known of the late Victorian poets and story-tellers. Over time, Kipling would become known for harboring a sense of English imperialism and views on certain cultures that would draw much objection and be seen as disturbingly racist. Seamus Heaney was a renowned Irish poet and professor who won the 1995 Nobel Prize in Literature. In 1907, Rudyard Kipling was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. This association fostered Kipling’s imperialist persuasions, which were to grow stronger with the years. He described dreadful years of his childhood in his short story Baa Baa, Black Sheep. Rudyard Kipling, in full Joseph Rudyard Kipling, (born December 30, 1865, Bombay [now Mumbai], India—died January 18, 1936, London, England), English short-story writer, poet, and novelist chiefly remembered for his celebration of British imperialism, his tales and poems of British soldiers in India, and his tales for children. Kipling was the recipient of the 1907 Nobel Prize in Literature. In 1902, the Kiplings bought a large estate in Sussex known as Bateman's. Left only with what they had with them, the young couple decided to travel to Brattleboro, where much of Carrie's family still resided. Lewis Carroll was the pen name of Charles L. Dodgson, author of the children's classics 'Alice's Adventures in Wonderland' and 'Through the Looking-Glass.'. We strive for accuracy and fairness. In 1907, Kipling received a Nobel Prize for literature, the first English-language author to win the prestigious award. At Bateman's, Kipling found some of the happiness he thought he had forever lost following the death of Josephine. A third child, John, was born in 1897, after the Kiplings had left America. To help relax his mind, Alice took her son on an extended vacation and then placed him in a new school in Devon. When Mrs. Holloway took away his books, Kipling snuck in literature time, pretending to play in his room by moving furniture along the floor while he read. Mrs. Holloway was a brutal woman who quickly grew to despise her foster son. Kipling's ashes were buried in Westminster Abbey in Poets' Corner next to the graves of Thomas Hardy and Charles Dickens. As much of Europe braced for war with Germany, Kipling proved to be an ardent supporter of the fight. William Butler Yeats was one of the greatest English-language poets of the 20th century and received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1923. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. In 1882, Kipling returned to India. He received the 1907 Nobel Prize in Literature. His fame was redoubled upon the publication in 1892 of the verse collection Barrack-Room Ballads, which contained such popular poems as “Mandalay,” “Gunga Din,” and “Danny Deever.” Not since the English poet Lord Byron had such a reputation been achieved so rapidly. This autobiography/biography was written at the time of … In 1915, he even traveled to France to report on the war from the trenches. His support of English imperialism at first contributed to this popularity but caused a reaction against him in the 20th century. Although he was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1907, his political views, which grew more toxic as he aged, have long made him critically unpopular. Joseph Rudyard Kipling. These were hard years for Kipling. But life again took another dramatic turn for the family when Kipling had a major falling out with Beatty. In 1892, he also published the poetry work Barrack-Room Ballads. She beat and bullied the youngster, who also struggled to fit in at school. John Donne, leading English poet of the Metaphysical school, is often considered the greatest loved poet in the English language. 1889- He left the newspaper and moved to London. Sussex was the background of much of his later writing—especially in Puck of Pook’s Hill (1906) and Rewards and Fairies (1910), two volumes that, although devoted to simple dramatic presentations of English history, embodied some of his deepest intuitions. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. As a result, in 1896, he and his family left Vermont for a new life back in England. In 1902 Kipling bought a house at Burwash, Sussex, which remained his home until his death. Kipling was delighted to be around children—a characteristic that was apparent in his writing. Kipling fell in love with life in the states, and the two decided to settle there. Kipling was the recipient of many honorary degrees and other awards. The family lived well, and Kipling was especially close to his mother. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? His father was a professor in an art school. Rudyard Kipling short biography Joseph Rudyard Kipling was born on 30 December 1865 in Bombay, British India. After spending … Kipling's friendship with Balestier changed the young writer's life. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Childhood and youth . Most of his work celebrated the English Empire and its soldiers in India. In his early years, Kipling lived with a foster family in England and discovered his passion for writing during his childhood. Kipling Sahib is indeed a good biography, but it is confined tothe writer's early years. Nighttime, especially, proved to be valuable for the young writer. Rudyard Kipling was born on December 30, 1865, in Bombay, India. The works of Rudyard Kipling, who in 1907 became the first English writer to be awarded the Nobel Prize, have left a mixed legacy: Kipling is recog­nized for his extraordinary ear for language, his precise use of spare, vivid imagery, and his innovative plots and deceptively simple structure. As a poet, author, and recipient of the Nobel Prize for literature in 1907, he published over 80 stories and ballads. The turn of the century saw the publication of another novel that would become quite popular, Kim (1901), which featured a youth's adventure on the Grand Trunk Road. Mini Bio (1) Rudyard Kipling was born in Bombay, Maharashtra, India, the son of John Lockwood Kipling, a museum director and author and illustrator. Rudyard Kipling was an English short-story writer, poet, and novelist. Wanting to help his son enlist, Kipling drove John to several different military recruiters. In 1926 he received the Gold Medal of the Royal Society of Literature, which only Scott, Meredith, and Hardy had been awarded before him. Kipling was taken to England by his parents at the age of six and was left for five years at a foster home at Southsea, the horrors of which he described in the story “Baa Baa, Black Sheep” (1888). Carrington's was the authorised biography, but that was published as long ago as 1955. He also encouraged his son, John, to enlist. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Kipling, perhaps feeling guilty about his push to make his son a soldier, set off for France to find John. When Kipling returned to England in 1889, his reputation had preceded him, and within a year he was acclaimed as one of the most brilliant prose writers of his time. His most successful novel was Kim (1901). He was educated in England but returned to India in 1882. {{-*error}} 0.0 based on 0 rates. 1878- Rudyard was sent to study at the United Service College at Westward Ho in Devon. In this ballad, an Afghan chieftain named Kamal raids … Both Kipling and young Josephine arrived in the states gravely ill with pneumonia. He died in 1936. The Jungle Book (1894) and The Second Jungle Book (1895) are stylistically superb collections of stories. The family waited until Kipling was strong enough to hear the news, but even then, Carrie could not bear to break it to him, asking his publisher, Frank Doubleday, to do so instead. He lauded British imperialism. Since Josephine's death, Kipling and John had grown tremendously close. It haunted Kipling for the rest of his life—but always as the glorious place celebrated in Stalky & Co. (1899) and related stories: an unruly paradise in which the highest goals of English education are met amid a tumult of teasing, bullying, and beating. Biography of Rudyard Kipling an English poet, short-story writer, and novelist chiefly remembered for his celebration of British imperialism, tales and poems of British soldiers in India, and his tales for children. The property had been erected in 1634, and for the private Kiplings, it offered the kind of isolation they now cherished. Along with his younger sister, Alice, he reveled in exploring the local markets with his nanny. Updates? Born in Bombay, India, Rudyard Kipling was educated in England, returning to India in 1882. Besides numerous short-story collections and poetry collections such as The Seven Seas (1896), Kipling published his best-known novels in the 1890s and immediately thereafter. The two men grew close and even traveled together to the United States, where Balestier introduced his fellow writer to his childhood home of Brattleboro, Vermont. A live-action/CGI version of the movie was later released in 2016, with direction by Jon Favreau and the vocal talents of Idris Elba, Ben Kingsley, Lupita Nyong'o and Scarlett Johansson. When he finished he studies he went back to India and worked as a journalist. For Kipling, India was a wondrous place. Thereafter he returned to India to work as a journalist. He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1907. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. The two men quarreled, and when Kipling made noise about taking his brother-in-law to court because of threats Beatty had made to his life, newspapers across America broadcast the spat on their front pages. He was sent to stay at Southsea, England, for schooling, where he was ill treated, and his secondary education was at United Services College in Devon. In 1926, he … Alice (one of the four noted MacDonald sisters) was a vivacious woman, about whom Lord Dufferin would say, "Dullness and Mrs Kipling cannot exist in the same room." He published the verse collection Departmental Ditties in 1886, the short-story collection Plain Tales from the Hills in 1888, and between 1887 and 1889 he brought out six paper-covered volumes of short stories. Birkenhead's unofficial bio improved on it in 1978. Kipling made his home with his parents in Lahore and, with his father's help, found a job with a local newspaper. When the poet laureate Alfred, Lord Tennyson, died in 1892, it may be said that Kipling took his place in popular estimation. He soon got to know Balestier's family, in particular, his sister, Carrie. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Wole Soyinka is a Nigerian playwright, poet, author, teacher and political activist. Among the latter were Soldiers Three, The Phantom Rickshaw (containing the story “The Man Who Would Be King”), and Wee Willie Winkie (containing “Baa Baa, Black Sheep”). These connections were of lifelong importance to Kipling. Unable or unwilling to adjust to life in America, the Kiplings returned to England in 1896. He published in 1886, his first collection of Verse, Departmental Ditties. But the journey across the Atlantic was brutal, and New York was frigid. Home › British › Rudyard Kipling December 30, 1865 117 views ★ ★ ★ ★ ★ Thanks for rating! Over his last few years, Kipling suffered from a painful ulcer that eventually took his life on January 18, 1936. There, Kipling flourished and discovered his talent for writing, eventually becoming editor of the school newspaper. His work during this time included The Jungle Book (1894), The Naulahka: A Story of West and East (1892) and The Second Jungle Book (1895), among others. https://www.biography.com/writer/rudyard-kipling. The English poet and story writer Rudyard Kipling was one of the first masters of the short story in English, and he was the first to use Cockney dialect (the manner in which natives of London, England's, East End speak) in serious poetry. In the spring of 1891, the Kiplings purchased from Carrie's brother Beatty a piece of land just north of Brattleboro and had a large home constructed, which they called the Naulahka. The Stalky saga is one of Kipling’s great imaginative achievements. These convictions are not to be dismissed in a word: they were bound up with a genuine sense of a civilizing mission that required every Englishman, or, more broadly, every white man, to bring European culture to those he considered the heathen natives of the uncivilized world. Rudyard Kipling was born in India in 1865 and educated in England but returned to India in 1882. By the age of 11, Kipling was on the verge of a nervous breakdown. Kipling seemed to adore his new life, which soon saw the Kiplings welcome their first child, a daughter named Josephine (born in 1893), and a second daughter, Elsie (born in 1896). These books give further proof that Kipling excelled at telling a story but was inconsistent in producing balanced, cohesive novels. His surroundings Rudyard rudyard kipling achievements very hard for the family lived well, and information from Encyclopaedia.. For France to report on the state of Kipling 's experiences during this time Kipling! © 2021 biography and the biography contains the life history of popular writer, poet, author, new... Took her son on an extended vacation and then Japan a Britannica Premium subscription gain. Book ( 1895 ) are stylistically superb collections of stories untouched and unfaked. `` he in! School students the Hills, which remain popular and oft-cited more than 20 children 's stories, including famous! 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